The Sustainable Development Goals: A Global Agenda for Transformative Change towards a Sustainable World

by Atul Karn1 & Saurav Kumar2
1, 2Assistant Professor, SBU, Ranchi, India


Karn, A., & Kumar, S. (2024). The Sustainable Development Goals: A Global Agenda for Transformative Change towards a Sustainable World. In R. Sharma, R. Pareek (Eds.), New Paradigms of Sustainability in the Contemporary Era (pp 70-83). CSMFL Publications.


The United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, which took place in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in 2012, aimed to establish a series of global objectives that address the environmental, political, and economic obstacles confronting humanity. As a result, the UN voted in 2015 to adopt 17 universally relevant Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) that are intended to transform the world. These SDGs are being promoted as the new global targets for sustainable development, replacing the previous 8 Millennium Development Goals and covering the period between 2015 and 2030. This paper is based on a review of existing literature on the topic, including academic research papers, reports, and policy documents from international organizations such as the IMF and the World Bank. The analysis focuses on the period from 1950 to 2000 and examines the relationship between economic growth and well-being in developing countries during this period. The United Nations adopted the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), also referred to as the Global Goals, in 2015 to encourage worldwide action towards ending poverty, safeguarding the planet, and ensuring peace and prosperity for all by 2030. Comprising 17 objectives, the SDGs acknowledge that progress in one domain has a ripple effect in others, and that development must prioritize social, economic, and environmental sustainability. Countries have pledged to prioritize the advancement of marginalized groups. The SDGs aim to eradicate poverty, hunger, AIDS, and gender discrimination, with India making notable strides towards achieving the 13th goal. From the outset, the SDGs have focused on the 2030 Agenda, which serves as a blueprint for creating a sustainable world with shared prosperity, where people can live productive lives in harmony with a healthy planet.

Keywords: Poverty, Development, Millennium Development Goals, Sustainable Development Goals

This chapter is a part of: New Paradigms of Sustainability in the Contemporary Era (Eds. Roopali Sharma & Ritu Pareek)

© CSMFL Publications & its authors.


  1. Sachs, J. D. (2012). From millennium development goals to sustainable development goals. The Lancet, 379(9832), 2206-2211.
  2. Nath, A. (2011). India’s progress toward achieving the millennium development goals. Indian journal of community medicine: official publication of Indian Association of Preventive & Social Medicine, 36(2), 85.
  3. Kabeer, N. (2016). Leaving no one behind: the challenge of intersecting inequalities. ISSC, IDS and UNESCO, Challenging Inequalities: Pathways to a Just World, World Social Science Report, 55-8.
  4. Chatterjee, S., Hammill, M., Kumar, N., & Panda, S. (2015). Assessing India’s progress in achieving the millennium development goals: key drivers of inter-state variations.
  5. Maurya, R. K. National Implementation of the SDG Monitoring India 2015 Available from–4.3-Implementation-of-SDG-Monitoring–I.
  6. Government Flagship Programs: Make in India and Digital India. Available from
  7. Lu, Y., Nakicenovic, N., Visbeck, M., & Stevance, A. S. (2015). Policy: Five priorities for the UN sustainable development goals. Nature, 520(7548), 432-433.
  8. Report of the third International Conference on Financing for Development. 2015. Available from
  9. Bhattacharya, S., Patro, S. A., Vaidyanathan, V., & Rathi, S. (2016). Localising the gender equality goal through urban planning tools in South Asia. Center for Study of Science, Technology and Policy.
  10. Kurian, O. C. (2016). Overcoming data challenges in tracking India’s health and nutrition targets. ORF Occasional Paper, 104.
  11. Sharma, B. (2014). Sustainable development through research and higher education in India. American Journal of Educational Research, 2(3), 117-122.
  12. Sehgal, M., & Khanna, P. (2017). Sustainable Development in India: The Need for Paradigm Shift in Higher Education. World Wide Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Development, 3(10), 236-239.
  13. Sapru, K. (2020). Role of Education in Sustainable Development. Panjab University, Chandigarh.
  14. Verma. & Shekhar, K. (2014). Sustainable Development: Betterment through Education. International Journal of Management and International Business Studies, 4(2), 123-128.
  15. Kumar, R. (2021). Role of higher education in sustainable development in Indian perspectives. International Journal of Applied Research, 7(11), 89-91.
  16. Economic Survey (2013-14), Government of India, New Delhi.
  17. Millennium Development Goals India Country Report, 2014, Social Statistics Division, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of India,
  18. JICA. (2011). Chapter 3: Present conditions of Jharkhand State. Preparatory Survey on Initiative for Horticulture Intensification by Micro Drip Irrigation in Jharkhand, 1-197.
  19. Planning Commission. (2012). Twelfth Five Year Plan (2012-2017): Faster, More Inclusive and Sustainable Growth (Vol. 1).

[email protected]

Follow us @