Artificial Intelligence (AI) is now rapidly being applied in our society. While the breakthrough of AI in terms of its use and its applicability on a societal level has in fact been repeatedly announced since the mid 1950s, is now truer than ever. As recently acknowledged, AI has now, after three waves of developments, finally left the research labs and entered real-world contexts. Accordingly, and as AI is now increasingly and widely applied, we suggest that it is now time to address issues related to “Applied Artificial Intelligence” (AAI). In this paper we propose this term, and we define it as the study, design, development, implementation and use of Artificial Intelligence technologies to address real-world problems. In this article we present how AI has developed over the past few decades, and across three waves of developments, and we illustrated Applied Artificial Intelligence by presenting our e-Biz corp case where a global actor is now using AI as a core component of their online business. We conclude this article with a set of recommendations for moving forward with Applied Artificial Intelligence, and we present the main contributions offered by our work to the growing body of research on how to make use of AI.
Keywords: AI, Artificial Intelligence, Applied Artificial Intelligence, Core business
Borgmann, A. (1984) Technology and the character of contemporary life – a philosophical inquiry. The University of Chicago Press.
Clark, A. (2003) Natural-Born Cyborgs – Minds, Technologies, and the Future of Human Intelligence, Oxford University Press.
Dignum, V. (2019) Responsible Artificial Intelligence – How to develop and use AI in a responsible way, Springer.
Finn, E. (2017) What algorithms want – Imagination in the age of computing, MIT Press.
Gilio A. (1995) Algorithms for Precise and Imprecise Conditional Probability Assessments. In: Coletti G., Dubois D., Scozzafava R. (eds) Mathematical Models for Handling Partial Knowledge in Artificial Intelligence. Springer, Boston, MA.
Gomes, C., Fern, X., Fink, D., Fisher, D., Flecker, A., Freund, D., Fern, A. (2019). Computational sustainability: Computing for a better World and a sustainable future. Communications of the ACM, 62(9), 56–65.
Gomez-Uribe, CA and Hunt, N. (2016). The Netflix Recommender System: Algorithms, Business Value, and Innovation. ACM Trans. Manage. Inf. Syst. 6, 4, Article 13 (December 2016), 19 pages. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1145/2843948
Holloway, C., & Hand, H. H. (1988). Who‖s running the store, anyway? Artificial intelligence!!!, Business Horizons, 31(2), 70—76.
Johnson, Mark & Christensen, C.C. & Kagermann, Henning.(2008). Reinventing Your Business Model. Harvard Business Review. 87. 52-60.
Kaplan, A. M., & Haenlein, M. (2019). Siri, Siri, in my hand: Who‖s the fairest in the land? On the interpretations, illustrations, and implications of artificial intelligence. Business Horizons, 62(1), 15e25.
Kaplan, A., Haenlein, M. (2020) Rulers of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of artificial intelligence, Business Horizons, Volume 63, Issue 1,Pages 37-50.
McCarthy, J., Minsky, M. L., Rochester, N., & Shannon, C. E.(1955). A proposal for the Dartmouth summer research project on artificial intelligence. Available at http:// wwwformal.stanford.edu/jmc/history/dartmouth/ dartmouth.html
Makridakis, S. (2017). The forthcoming Artificial Intelligence (AI) revolution: Its impact on society and firms. Futures, 100(90), 46–60.
Miller, A. (2019) The Artist in the Machine – The World of AI-powered creativity, MIT Press.
Melville, Nigel & Kraemer, Kenneth & Gurbaxani, Vijay.(2004). Review: Information Technology and Organizational Performance: An Integrative Model of IT Business Value. MIS Quarterly. 28. 283-322. 10.2307/25148636.
Newell, A., and Simon, H. (1972) Human Problem Solving, NJ:Prentice Hall.
Rahwan, I., Cebrian, M., Obradovich, N. et al. (2019) Machine behaviour. Nature 568, 477–486. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1138-y
Stolterman, E. & Wiberg, M. (2020) Compositional interaction design—changes in design practice and its implications for teaching and research, Digital Creativity, 1-20, Routledge.
Strassmann, PA (1990) The business value of computers, Information Economics Pr.
Turing, Alan (October 1950), “Computing Machinery and Intelligence”, Mind, LIX (236): 433–460, doi:10.1093/mind/LIX.236.433, ISSN 0026-4423
Turing, Alan (1952), “Can Automatic Calculating Machines be Said to Think?”, in Copeland, B. Jack (ed.), The Essential Turing: The ideas that gave birth to the computer age, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-825080-7
Van de Ven, A. H., Engaged Scholarship: A Guide for Organizational and Social Research, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2007.
Vardouli T., & Touloumi, O. (2019) Computer Architectures: Constructing the Common Ground, Routledge Research in Design, Technology and Society, Routledge.
Weizenbaum, Joseph (January 1966), “ELIZA – A Computer Program For the Study of Natural Language Communication Between Man And Machine”, Communications of the ACM, 9(1): 36–45, doi:10.1145/365153.365168
Zook, C., & Allen, J. (2003). Growth outside the core. Harvard business review, 81 12, 66-73, 125.
Zook C. (2007) Finding your next core business. Harvard Business Review. Apr;85(4):66-75, 140.
Ågerfalk, P. (2020) Artificial intelligence as digital agency, European Journal of Information Systems, 29:1, 1-8, DOI: 10.1080/0960085X.2020.1721947