Kennedy, O. (2021). Innovative Pedagogy to Overcome Student Struggles with Plagiarism. In D. Koyama (Ed.), Development of Innovative Pedagogical Practices for a Modern Learning Experience (pp 169-194). Jagadhri, HR: CSMFL Publications. https://dx.doi.org/10.46679/978819484836307
Plagiarism is a problem that affects English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners all over the world. Rather than simply labelling students who plagiarize as “offenders,” finding solutions to guide them away from it is of primary importance. Ten instructors teaching a 30-week EFL academic writing course at a large urban university in Japan were interviewed about their methodologies to do so. Two academic writing classes (N=40) were asked to write reflections on what they were learning and how it was being taught to them. The student reflections and instructor interview transcripts were coded and analysed, instructor strategies to deal with plagiarism proactively in this context identified, and student responses to these strategies explored. The strategies were largely found to be a combination of existing methods with one notable exception, which is introduced in detail here. It is based on Rubin’s Four Tendencies personality framework, which is a method that relies on instructors recognizing learners as responding to expectations in one of four ways and harnessing this to help them achieve. This personalized instruction can be seen as one of the modern approaches to facilitate learning and engagement outlined by Owens and Kadakia (2016). Student responses to it were positive, and the instructor using it felt that it both reduced stress and improved relationships with students. As such, the method has been added to the departmental pedagogy for the next intake of students.
Keywords: EFL writing, Four Tendencies, translation software, machine translation
An, D., & Carr, M. (2017). Learning styles theory fails to explain learning and achievement: Recommendations for alternative approaches. Personality and Individual Differences, 116, 410–416. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2017.04.050
Bugeja, M. (2004). Don’t let students “overlook” Internet plagiarism. The Education Digest, 70(2), 37–43.
Clarke, V., Braun, V., & Hayfield, N. (2015). Thematic analysis. Qualitative psychology: A practical guide to research methods, 222–248.
Curtis, G.J., & Vardanega, L. (2016). Is plagiarism changing over time? A 10- year time-lag study with three points of measurement. Higher Education Research & Development, 35(6), 1167–1179. https://doi.org/10.1080/07294360.2016.1161602
Deci, E.L. (1971). Effects of externally mediated rewards on intrinsic motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 18, 105–115. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0030644
Educational Testing Service TOEIC. (2018). 2018 report on test takers worldwide (TOEIC Listening and Reading Test). https://www.ets.org/s/toeic/pdf/2018-report-on-test-takers-worldwide.pdf
Kirk, J., MacDonald, A., Lavender, P., Dean, J., & Rubin, G. (2017). Can treatment adherence be improved by using Rubin’s Four Tendencies Framework to understand a patient’s response to expectations? Biomed Hub 2,1 –12. https://doi.org/10.1159/000480347
Ludeman, P. M., & McMakin, D. (2014). Perceived Helpfulness of Peer Editing Activities: First-year students’ views and writing performance outcomes. Psychology Learning and Teaching, 13(2), 129-136. https://doi.org/10.2304/plat.2014.13.2.129
Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. (2009). Kotogakko gakushu shido yoryo. [The course of study for high schools]. http://www.mext.go.jp/a_menu/shotou/new- cs/youryou/eiyaku/__icsFiles/afieldfile/2011/04/11/1298353_9.pdf
Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. (2011a). The present condition of senior high school education. Retrieved from MEXT: http://www.mext.go.jp/component/a_menu/education/detail/_icsFiles/ afieldfile/2011/09/27/1299178_01.pdf
Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. (2018a). Kotogakko gakushu shido yoryo kaisetsu. [Explanation of the Course of Study for high schools]. https://www.mext.go.jp/content/1407073_09_1_2.pdf
Mitchell, C. (2017). Language education pressures in Japanese high schools. JALT Shiken, 21(1), 1–11.
Nabhan, S. (2019). Bringing multiliteracies into process writing approach in ELT classroom: Implementation and reflection. EduLite: Journal of English Education, Literature and Culture, 4(2), 156–170. https://doi.org/10.30659/e.4.2.156-170
Otani, T. (2008). SCAT. A qualitative data analysis method by four-step coding: Easy startable and small scale data-applicable process of theorization. Nagoya University Bulletin of the Graduate School of Education and Human Development, 54, 27–44.
Owens, L. M. D., & Kadakia, C. (2016, April 26). Is reading a book a modern learning method? The Association for Talent Development. https://www.td.org/insights/is-reading-a-book-a-modern-learning-method
Owens, C., & White, F. A. (2013). A 5‐year systematic strategy to reduce plagiarism among first‐year psychology university students. Australian Journal of Psychology, 65, 14–21. https://doi.org/10.1111/ajpy.12005
Park, C. (2003). In other (people’s) words: Plagiarism by university students – literature and lessons. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 28, 471–488. https://doi.org/10.1080/02602930301677
Rakuten Research Inc. (2016). Eigo ni kan suru chousa [Survey on attitudes towards English]. https://research.rakuten.co.jp/report/20160826/
Rubin, G. (2017a). Four Tendencies Quiz. Retrieved from https://quiz.gretchenrubin.com/?utm_source=website&utm_medium=resources_4Tquiz
Rubin, G. (2017b). The Four Tendencies: The indispensable personality profiles that reveal how to make your life better (and other people’s lives better, too). Harmony Books.
Rubin, G. (2017c). Gretchen Rubin’s Four Tendencies for parents, teachers, and coaches. Retrieved from https://api.gretchenrubin.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Four-Tendencies-One-Sheet-Children.pdf
Rubin, G. (2017d). Flash Evaluation. Retrieved from https://api.gretchenrubin.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/The-Four-Tendencies-Flash-Evaluation.pdf
Rubin, G. (2020). Trying to Manage Children’s Schoolwork During COVID-19? My “Four Tendencies” Personality Framework may help. Retrieved from: https://gretchenrubin.com/2020/04/four-tendencies-schoolwork-covid-19
Ryan, R.M., & Deci, E.L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. The American Psychologist, 55(1), 68–78. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.68
Thomson, R. (2013). Implementation of criteria and standards-based assessment: An analysis of first-year learning guides. Higher Education Research & Development, 32, 272–286. https://doi.org/10.1080/07294360.2012.676026